A survey in the North Water in May of 2009 and 2010 found most of the walruses distributed roughly in a belt from Greenland across to Ellesmere Island in the southern part of the North Water at a latitude of about 76° 30’N over both shallow and deep (>500m) water. This unrestricted commercial harvest led to a serious decline in abundance in these stocks. Report of the 20th Meeting of the Scientific Committee, Reykjavík, Iceland. (2000). Walrus numbers could be threatened by a loss of sea ice caused by global warming and accompanying environmental changes, with retreating sea ice reducing the availability of suitable habitat and food supply and affecting walrus movement and behaviour (Dietz et al. Tusks are found on both males and females, but are smaller than Pacific walrus. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 62, 266–284. 2008). Deep into the ice: overwintering and habitat selection in Atlantic walruses. A study analysing data from satellite transmitters from 50 walruses from Northwest Greenland deployed during May-June 2010-2013 and 2015 (Heide-Jørgensen et al. Atlantic walrus Scientific name : Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus Taxonomy: Mammal Region: Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador, Atlantic Ocean Description The immense Atlantic walrus is most easily identified by its long tusks and accompanying front and hind flippers. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 9, 15–31. The problem is exacerbated because, generally sink when killed. in the Pechora and Kara Seas and those in the Svalbard-Franz Josef Land area is unknown. 2003). However, there is a lack of genetic differentiation between Foxe Basin and HB-DS stocks. Currently, the genetic relationship between walrus in the Pechora and Kara Seas and those in the Svalbard-Franz Josef Land area is unknown. In spring and summer, walrus are generally found in coastal areas throughout their distribution, where water depths are relatively shallow and they can access their favoured benthic foods. Use of skin biopsies for assessing levels of organochlorines in walruses (. Key habitats and movement pattern of Pechora Sea walruses studied using satellite telemetry. (2003). Walrus quotas were introduced in 2007, and covered a 3-year period from 2007 to 2009. To make igunaq, the walrus is flensed so that the skeleton is removed, leaving the skin, fat, meat and some organs in one thick sheet. Walrus are agile and quick in the water, however, and it is often difficult to approach them closely enough for a successful harpoon strike. Information from hunts and surveys of walrus (. ) This species is subdivided into two subspecies: the Atlantic walrus (O. r. rosmarus), which lives in the Atlantic Ocean, and the Pacific walrus (O. r. divergens), which lives in the Pacific Ocean. The Atlantic walrus was hunted to near extinction for its ivory, meat and blubber from the 17th to the 19th century. Semyonova, V., Boltunov, A. and Nikiforov, V. (2019). Walrus numbers could be threatened by a loss of sea ice caused by global warming and accompanying environmental changes, with retreating sea ice reducing the availability of suitable habitat and food supply and affecting walrus movement and behaviour (Dietz et al. Adult females with calves occur more frequently at sheltered inshore haulout sites whereas the off-shore exposed rocks facing deeper waters have a higher proportion of adult males (Dietz et al. Family – Odobenidae. Estimating abundance and total allowable removals for walrus in Foxe Basin. The origin of the name “walrus” is uncertain, but it may be derived from the Old Norse word hrossval, meaning “horse-whale”. Most scientists recognize two subspecies of walruses: Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus (Atlantic) and Odobenus rosmarus divergens (Pacific). Abundance of walruses in Eastern Baffin Bay and Davis Strait. 2014). Relatively high levels of organochlorines such as DDT and PCBs have also been found in, that eat seals, although in a fairly recent study in Svalbard, levels of these compounds were found to be substantially lower than those of animals sampled in the same area 10 years earlier (, et al. Deep into the ice: overwintering and habitat selection in Atlantic walruses. ) Observations on social behaviour of Atlantic walruses (, Contaminants in Atlantic walruses in Svalbard part 1: Relationships between exposure, diet and pathogen prevalence, dy and conservation of the Atlantic walrus in the, Barents Sea and adjacent areas of the Kara Sea. (2012). The Atlantic walrus, Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus(Linnaeus, 1758) is one of two extant subspecies of the walrus, the other being the Pacific walrus (O. r. divergens). The three stocks have been differentiated on the basis of genetics, distribution and migration patterns (Witting and Born 2014). 2014), which is a 48% increase from the 2006 survey (Kovacs et al. Norway does not presently permit the harvest of walruses in its territory. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T15106A45228501. Quotas were introduced for this stock in 2007 and in agreement with earlier assessments, the density-regulated population model used to conduct the assessment in 2018 estimates a stable or slightly increasing population that is close to carrying capacity (depletion ratio of 95%) (NAMMCO 2018). This new management plan is still under development, now with two working groups (one for Foxe Basin and one for Baffin Bay–High Arctic) currently drafting an Integrated Fisheries Management Plan (IFMP) for walruses in Nunavut (DFO 2013b). The Baffin Bay stock can be separated from West Greenland walruses through genetics. (1994). 1995). This resulted in a recommended annual catch (landed animals) of no more than 17 walruses from this stock. Walruses are unable to break through ice that is thicker than about 20 cm (Fay 1982) but in both West Greenland and SE Baffin Island, shallow polynya and pack-ice areas with dynamic leads exist where walruses can overwinter. The Marine Mammal Regulations further stipulate requirements for hunting and established community quota levels for four communities in Nunavut: Arctic Bay, Clyde River, Coral Harbour and Sanikiluaq (DFO 2013b). The tusks, which are enlarged teeth, are used to help the animal move around on land or ice. Richard, P. (2001). COSEWIC 2017, NAMMCO 2018). Proceed. Historically and currently, all parts of the walrus are used for food or other purposes. The greatest threat for walruses is climate change and its associated impacts on sea ice, which alter their habitat and expose them to increased anthropogenic activity and potential impacts of acidification on bivalves, their main prey (Kovacs 2016, COSEWIC 2017, USFW 2017, Belikov 2018, NAMMCO 2018). Arctic, 61, 119-128. https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic31, Martinez-Levasseur, L.M., Furgal, C.M., Hammill, M.O., and Burness, G. (2016). Proceed. English: Atlantic walrus Danish: Hvalros. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.06.005, Icelandic Institute of Natural History IUCN Red List, Norwegian Polar Institute – Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada – Atlantic Walrus (Northwest Atlantic population), University of Michigan Museum of Zoology Animal Diversity Web – Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus), IUCN Red List – Walrus global assessment (2016), © Kit M. Kovacs and Christian Lydersen If walrus are disturbed for some reason at their haulout shortly before the survey, a large number of animals can be dispersed and not counted. The choice of summer haulout sites also appears to differ between males and females. Polar Biology, 35, 1555-1562. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-012-1195-2, Lydersen, C., Aars, J. and Kovacs, K. M. (2008). A link between walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) in northeast Greenland and Svalbard. Tusks are slightly longer and thicker among males, which use them for fighting, dominance and display; the strongest males with the largest tusks typically dominate social groups. 2014). http://www.mosj.no/no/fauna/hav/hvalross-bestand.html, North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission (NAMMCO). Since that time, harvests of this stock have been low, except for the period from 1925 to 1939 where a total of approximately 350 walruses were taken (Witting and Born 2014). The North Water-Baffin Bay stock was also subject to intense hunting during the late 19th and early 20th century, and by 2005 was estimated to have declined to a population of less than 10% of the 1900 level (Witting and Born 2005). COSEWIC assessment and status report on the Atlantic Walrus Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus, High Arctic population, Central-Low Arctic population and Nova Scotia-Newfoundland-Gulf of St. Lawrence population in Canada. Struck-and-lost rates for walrus hunts vary widely, depending on the type of hunt, environmental conditions, and hunter experience among other factors, but have been estimated to average from 32. (2012). The last few taps or knocks are often given in a rapid burst, termed the “coda”, sometimes followed by a bell call. The two subspecies are the Pacific walrus and the Atlantic walrus. 2013c, NAMMCO 2013, Shafer et al. Born, E. (2011). 2012/041. Estimating the number of walruses in Svalbard from aerial surveys and behavioural data from satellite telemetry. 2019), though other assessment of their health remain normal (. Crawford, J.A., Quakenbush, L.T., Citta, J.J., et al. The Atlantic Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is an easily recognizable Arctic mammal due to their large ivory tusks. Estimating the number of walruses in Svalbard from aerial surveys and behavioural data from satellite telemetry. iv + 20 p. DFO. WWF’s priority is to support a sustainable Indigenous harvest that ensures the long-term survival of the subspecies. In Svalbard, increasing tourism is being monitored to ensure that it does not affect walrus distribution or behaviour. (2014). The. DFO Canadian Scientific Advisory Secretariat. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 74(5), 897–911. They are characterised by their moustache and long tusks. Walrus Movements in Smith Sound: A Canada-Greenland Shared Stock. Its size is intermediate to the Atlantic and Pacific subspecies. https://nammco.no/topics/scientific-committee-reports/, , L. (1986). DFO Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat. Walruses have also been documented hunting various species of birds. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 9, 159–171. The walrus is the only living species in the family Odobenidae and genus Odobenus. Walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in the Pechora Sea in the context of contemporary population structure of Northeast Atlantic walruses. NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 9, 175-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.7557/3.2613, Lydersen, C., Chernook, V., Glazov, D. et al. Historically and currently, all parts of the walrus are used for food or other purposes. A multi-species synthesis of satellite telemetry data in the Pacific Arctic (1987–2015): Overlap of marine mammal distributions and core use areas. For those stocks that are shared between Greenland and Canada, NAMMCO adopts a precautionary approach and catches from Canadian communities are added to those from Greenland when performing an assessment and the level of removals in Canada is taken into account when generating management advice for the Greenlandic hunts. In several studies, the preferred percentage of ice for walruses in West Greenland was 50-60% cover, with some variation according to sex, season and year (Dietz et al. (2012). and Nikiforov V.V. Diurnal variation in haul-out patterns has also been observed, with a tendency for walruses to haul out during the afternoon and evening (Stewart et al. There is also possibly a third subspecies off the North coast of Asia particulalry in the Laptev Sea (O. rosmarus laptevi). The walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) is a large flippered marine mammal with a discontinuous distribution about the North Pole in the Arctic Ocean and subarctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. Scientific Report from DCE—Danish Centre for Environment and Energy No. This project is mainly funded by the Norwegian-Russian Environmental Commission (National Progress Report Norway 2018). Polar Research, 33. https://doi.org/10.3402/polar.v33.26034, Lindqvist, C., Bachmann, L., Andersen, L.W. Scientific name: Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152122, Miljøovervåking Svalbard og Jan Mayen (MOSJ). both subspecies of walrus are ____ and ___ isolated. 2013). New additions to the group will walk around the periphery trying to find their spot or attempt to displace other animals (Salter 1979). Experienced hunters know how to choose exactly the right type of gravel for burial, as it must be porous enough to allow some air circulation, as well as to allow the hunter to dig up the bundles during the winter when the ground is frozen. in Canada and Greenland using dental Pb isotopes derived from local geochemical environments. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00364.x, Lowry, L. (2016). https://doi.org/10.14430/arctic26, Stewart, R. E. A., Born, E. W., Dunn, J.B., et al. Investigation of the stock structure of Atlantic walrus (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) in Canada and Greenland using dental Pb isotopes derived from local geochemical environments. Arctic, 36, 262–274. The rate at which they are given can vary from 1 to 15 per second (Stirling et al. The Atlantic Walrus, Odobenus is one of two extant subspecies, the other being the Pacific Walrus. Stewart, R. E. A., Born, E. W., Dunn, J.B., et al. The main species taken in Greenland are the bivalves Mya truncata, Serripes groenlandicus, Hiatella arctica and Macoma baltica (Dietz et al. Catches in Greenland peaked in 1938 with more than 600 animals taken, and more than 9,400 animals were taken in total over those three decades (Witting and Born 2014). NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 9, 53–74. Walrus are protected in Svalbard and mainland Norway. are very sensitive to human-caused environmental disturbances, such as the noise of boats and low-flying airplanes. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00364.x. . NAMMCO Scientific Publications, 9, 95–122. It is thought that these males moved into their breeding areas in the winter, based on the timing of the occupancy and diving behaviour in that area. The nursing period typically lasts for 2 years, with weaning occurring gradually over a period of time. (2014a). This sheet is cut into smaller pieces and sewn into large sausage-shaped rolls, called, are buried in gravel and left for several months to age and ferment. In Atlantic walrus, males weigh around 1200 to 1500 kg and reach lengths of close to 3 m. Females are smaller, weighing around 600–700 kg and reaching lengths of 2.5 m. Walrus are a cinnamon-brown colour overall, and are characterised by their moustache and long tusks. and estimates of their food consumption. Very high numbers of walruses were taken further north in the late 1890s and early 1900s, as many as 1,400 in one year. Direct conflicts with fisheries are uncommon, with occasional interactions with trawl and longline gear of groundfish fisheries considered as insignificant, trawl fisheries could disturb important benthic feeding areas, he extent of this impact off western Greenland is not known. NAMMCO advises governments on the conservation status, sustainable removals and responsible hunting methods of marine mammals Walrus that are disturbed or displaced from an area tend not to return. Danish Centre for Environment and Energy. Walruses prefer hauling out on sea ice when they can, rather than on land (Lydersen et al. Odobenus comes from the Greek: "tooth walker", and refers to the walruses' method of pulling themselves up onto the ice with their long tusks. In Igloolik, sport hunts were suspended for two years, starting in 2008, over community concern that walruses were being disturbed (DFO 2013b). Available at: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas-sccs/Publications/Pro-Cr/2012/2012_041-eng.html, DFO. 2014). The original population size of walruses in Franz Josef Land in 1897 was estimated to be from 6,000 to 12,000 walruses (Wiig et al. Peoples eat walrus meat, use the skin for covering kayaks ( boats ), may 2017 Version... 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R.A. et al on Matveyev Island 2018 ( National Progress Report Norway 2018 ) respectively ( et... Studies in Oceanography, 152, 132–153 may cause walrus to abandon an uglit, aged. The 19th century and during the first 6 months or so, further!
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