[1964b] 2010b). Figure 9.9. Paulus Arek, who was born in Wanigela, had been the headmaster at the Popondetta primary school and, in 1968, he nominated for the Ijivitari Open electorate (Langmore 1993). Vienna, Tuesday: In Papua New Guinea, Newman Ewada is trying to establish the identities of those Europeans (non-Papua New Guineans) who were killed in the Mount Lamington eruption of 1953. Eruption of Mt Lamington, Papua New Guinea, 1951 [picture] / Albert Speer Call Number PIC/9275/1-62 LOC Album 1085 A Created/Published 1951 or 1952 Extent 1 album (62 photographs) : b&w ; 23.5 x 34 cm. These were so-called ‘Wadati-Benioff’ earthquake zones, named after the seismologists who first identified them. The map is at 1:100,000 scale and was produced from triangulation surveys and from aerial photographs flown in 1973, supplemented by track and village information taken from patrol reports up to 1973. Six volcanoes along the southern margin of the South Bismarck plate (Figure 9.9) were volcanically active during 1972–75 in a remarkable ‘time cluster’ of eruptions (Cooke et al. People may have heard even about the minor volcanic eruptions at Kururi on the Managalase Plateau to the south. No unusual evidence was found, however, that Lamington was about to produce another eruption of the type seen on 21 January 1951. First was Sivepe on the western slopes of the mountain about 11 kilometres from the summit. This drawing accompanied a short version of the legend written in Orokaiva by Joel Oreba (1976, 5). Further, the ashes were weathered and coloured by oxidation of iron oxides in different degrees, inhibiting recognition of the deposits of individual eruptions. Even the volcanologist Tony Taylor had departed after two years of fieldwork in the area. Three adventive features on the lower south-eastern flank of the volcano, however, are not part of this zone. Radford 2012; see also Figure 9.8). The January 21, 1951 Blast of Mount Lamington in Papua New Guinea: Sequence of Events and Characteristics of the Deposits - NASA/ADS We present the results of a detailed reinvestigation of deposits of the famous 1951 eruption of Mount Lamington which was originally studied by … Ruxton in 1967 also visited an archaeological site at Kosipe about 140 kilometres west of Mount Lamington and 135 kilometres north of Port Moresby. This is an important point as there is meteorological evidence from Port Moresby that winds higher than about 5,000 metres above sea level blow east to west all year round in Papua (Figure 9.3). Where is … Items 62 View Catalogue This included reporting separately on the volcanic geology of Mount Victory, results that complemented those obtained earlier by the CSIRO scientists (Smith 1969, 1981). The volcanoes related to any one subduction zone form long lines or ‘arcs’ parallel to the convergent plate boundary itself. This version of the myth was told in some detail by Cedrick S. Mimari of Kendata Village in 1987, assisted by his nephew Winterford Poraripa (Johnston 1995). It lies roughly across that peninsula from the capital city of Port Moresby and 40 km inland from the Solomon Sea. Christian, had visited the Territory in January 1953 and the field party itself arrived in early July (Pacific Islands Monthly 1953b). Mount Lamington is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Oro Province of Papua New Guinea.… The future inaugural prime minister, Michael Somare, was a member of the ‘angry Thirteen’, and so too was Trobriand Islander Elliot Elijah, the MBE awardee who had been recognised for his services during the initial disaster relief phase at Mount Lamington in 1951. The imminent and inevitable end of the longer era of Australian colonialism was also becoming more obvious to indigenous people throughout the Territory, as well as to the Australian Government and the United Nations (e.g. The Australian National University, Canberra UPNG also fostered the intellectual development of post-Independence leaders. Mild vapour emission is taking place from the top of the dome where there are small lava spines. Revenge aimed against the Europeans and the tyranny of the hangings does not seem to have been an anti-colonial expression of the cult, although such a justification was warranted. Lamington was no longer in eruptive mode in the early 1970s, but other volcanoes in the Territory certainly were. The old sites of the Higaturu Government Station, Sangara Mission and nearby villages are not on the map. Postwar land survey techniques had been developed in the arid and semi-arid areas of northern Australia and adapting the methodologies in the early 1950s to the tropical climate, vegetation cover and mountainous terrains of Papua were challenging, and more so initially. Eruptive activity likely continued into the early twentieth century, possibly at a time when lava domes, or a dome, were being emplaced and causing night-time glows that—like natural lighthouses—were seen by people on passing ships. Collection of photographs and colour slides from the 1951 eruption of Mt Lamington, Papua New Guinea. These compilations were invaluable not only for the CSIRO land surveys themselves but also for later volcanological hazard assessments. The map’s area includes both Victory and Goropu, or Waiowa, volcanoes. The same local apprehension was also witnessed, for example, by the missionaries who climbed the mountain in the 1930s and heard ‘roars’ that, at the time, they could not explain. The northern, vegetated flanks of the mountain seem appropriately bare of settlement, despite the attraction of their volcanically rich soils. The Yega explanation may have resided somewhere within a cargo cult that was prevalent in 1951. 2). New aerial photography had to be obtained. +61 2 6125 5111 Taylor (1957) concluded that as much as 400 square kilometres of vegetation had been destroyed on Victory by its late nineteenth-century eruption, an area twice the size of the area of total devastation on Lamington in 1951. Improved earthquake mapping from numerous stations worldwide underpinned development of the revolutionary theory of plate tectonics that emerged in 1967–68 and whose impact became clearer during the early 1970s. Notice, Smithsonian Terms of The first study area, ‘Buna–Kokoda’, was the one that included Mount Lamington and its disaster area. Does all of this mean that the mountain Orokaiva had no pre-1951 knowledge of what ‘volcanic eruptions’ were in a general sense and, perhaps, no specific word for them or for ‘volcano’? Nationalist rather than separatist sentiments were being expressed at this time in the Northern District. The Finding of Ok Tedi. We found that the climactic phase of the eruption was triggered by a relatively small gravitational collapse of the old intracrater lava dome (debris avalanche V=0.02-0.04 cub. Villagers in the sketch on the right by Louise Bass are dropping food into the hole for the trapped Sumbiripa. He was ordered to come inland and blow up the mountain’ (Opeba 1977, 228). Lamington lies near the northern edge of Papua, New Guinea and had no known history of volcanic activity prior to January 1951, when an ash plume and … It lies roughly across that peninsula from the capital city of Port Moresby and 40 km inland from the Solomon Sea. The January 21, 1951 eruption of Mount Lamington, Papua New Guinea, completely devastated an area of 230 km2 and killed 2500 people (Taylor 1958). It lies roughly across that peninsula from the capital city of Port Moresby and 40 km inland from the Solomon Sea. What are the name of the people who live in the central mountains of Papua New Guinea, at a latitude of six degrees below the equator and at a mean altitude of about 1500 meters above sea level? The accompanying man and woman became separated on different peaks where they died of loneliness and despair. The usual dense vegetation had been transformed into fields of burnt ash and destruction. Resettlement of parts of the devastated area had started already. [1964b] 2010b). Regency Mines (LON:RGM) said its Mambare nickel joint venture with Direct Nickel Ltd (DNi) has today filed an exploration licence application (ELA) with the Mineral Resources Authority (MRA) of Papua New Guinea covering the Mount Lamington and Hydrographers Range volcanic areas. ([1964a] 2010a), showing them in different colours and shades (compare with Figure 9.1). Both volcanoes have numerous small lava domes, many of which are possibly restricted to defined zones on each mountain. The meteorological data used are from McAlpine, Keig and Short (1975), and the extent to which they can be applied in detail to Mount Lamington is uncertain. One of the land systems, called Oivi (number 3 in the south-west corner), consists of ultramafic and mafic rock, which are illustrative of the close proximity of the volcano to the Papuan Ultramafic Belt and Owen Stanley Range. Seismometer and radio link equipment on Lamington in 1972. Before it erupted in 1951, when Upoto was a boy, the people living on the mountain did not realize it was a volcano. Further, had the reduction of conflicts between Orokaiva groups and the construction of the road between the coast and Kokoda across the slopes of Lamington—Monckton’s ‘Yodda Road’ to the goldfields—brought about by the colonists provided greater opportunities for the sharing of information and stories across Orokaiva country? One might well argue that even those anthropologists who collect folk-explanations and folk-philosophies are pursuing western preoccupations, inasmuch as they write up their findings in the context of western scientific debate. It also has numerous plate boundaries defining the margins of two major plates—named Pacific and Australian—as well as at least two minor, less well-defined plates sandwiched between them (e.g. The forested peak of the volcano had not been recognised as such until its devastating eruption in 1951 that caused about 3,000 deaths. A third explanation listed by Schwimmer is the now familiar one: that the wrath of the Christian but Jehovah-like God, rather than the anger of Sumbiripa, had caused the disaster because of transgressions by the Orokaiva. [1964b] 2010b; Keig et al. Mt Lamington (Papua New Guinea) volcano: uncertain report about smoke and ash emission According to setyoufreenews.com, Mt Lamington volcano in New Guinea is showing some signs of becoming active. The question was raised in Marsh’s mind, and no doubt in others, of whether the park was, in fact, a memorial rather than a true ‘cemetery’. The surface layers at the site were identified as weathered volcanic ash, four of which were the ash ‘depositional units’ that Ruxton had recognised and named previously on the Managalase Plateau south-east of Lamington (White, Crook and Ruxton 1970). Wodak 1969; Schwimmer 1969; Horne 1974a; Oreba 1976; Newton 1985; Johnston 1995; Radford 2012; Larsen 2017; see Figure 9.7). The Orokaiva would have believed that they had violated an agreement and, accordingly, that the volcanic disaster was a reciprocating punishment. The surge produced spectacular tree blow-down in the devastated area. Four versions of the Sumbiripa-Kanekari legend were collected by Schwimmer from different communities who, however, were telling their stories 15 years after the 1951 eruption rather than before it. At present, there is no Benioff-Wadati subduction zone beneath the ophiolite sheet. Mount Lamington is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Oro Province of Papua New Guinea. Figure 9.3. A request for CSIRO’s involvement in survey work for postwar development purposes in the Territory can be traced back to Administrator Colonel J.K. Murray in 1947, as can the decision to start with the Mount Lamington area—Murray prioritised Mount Lamington in May 1951, shortly before his removal as administrator (McAlpine 2017; Keig et al. The geological history of the whole zone is unknown but these sites of satellite volcanic activity cannot yet be claimed to be major sites of explosive volcanism. Notable later successes, however, were also achieved by climatologists, including those from The Australian National University (ANU), in their provision of meteorological data compilations for the Territory and region—for example, for rainfall and wind (Brookfield and Hart 1966; Fitzpatrick, Hart and Brookfield 1966; McAlpine, Keig and Short 1975). Schwimmer himself was sensitive to such doubts when, in another context, he wrote that: The history of anthropology is a history of questions asked by westerners and related to western intellectual preoccupations. Smith (1981, adapted from his fig. Arrows show net plate motion relative to the Australian Plate. The precise age of the eruptions is not known but the activity may have been between the two world wars, or possibly even roughly synchronous with the eruptive activity at Goropu volcano in 1943–44 (Ruxton 2007). + 1 letter. One of these was Mount Manna, a small volcano that Ruxton suspected had produced ashes that had slightly ‘contaminated’ the Lamington ash cover he had been studying. Ruxton was aware of the limitations of his published conclusions. These last points are the reasons why Dr Fisher (1957) included Lamington and Victory in Part V of the Catalogue of the Active Volcanoes of the World including Solfatara Fields published by the International Volcanological Association in 1957. As many as 30 land systems were identified in the Buna–Kokoda area, for example. The temperatures of gas- and vapour-emitting areas known as fumaroles were measured fairly regularly, and condensates of gases were collected at times (Crick 1973). This list of highest mountains of New Guinea shows all mountains on the island of New Guinea that are at least 3750 m high and have a topographic prominence of 500 m or more. Attributing the volcanic disaster to generally articulated ‘geophysical’ causes is acceptable in a modern, secular-rationalist society, but were those causes well understood and, more particularly, to what extent are those causes understood even today? The broad structure of the PUB as an area of crustal thickening was confirmed, but the thickness of the crust beneath Lamington was found to be only 8 kilometres. The wide fan-shaped and crosshatched areas represent the expected dispersion of air-fall ash, as suggested by de Saint Ours (1988). A version of the myth told at Hohorita, where Sangara survivors of the eruption now lived, deals primarily with a fight between a pig and a large dog, or dogs, during which the mountain became divided into different parts or peaks. Figure 9.6. Mount Lamington began to erupt on the night of 18 January 1951. Eruption of Mt Lamington, Papua New Guinea, 1951 [picture] / Albert Speer Call Number PIC/9275/1-62 LOC Album 1085 A Created/Published 1951 or 1952 Extent 1 album (62 photographs) : b&w ; 23.5 x 34 cm. (Sinclair 1981, 100). #1 Mount Lamington Mountain Elevation: 1680 m Updated: 2019-05-17 Mount Lamington is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Oro Province of Papua New Guinea. These removals of personal identity would lead to unpleasant disputes several decades later, and to disaffection among those European relatives of the deceased who wanted to visit grave sites in what had become an unkempt and deteriorating park (Marsh 2005–08; Speer 2005–14). 5. The ridges or interfluves between the valleys, however, are not necessarily safer places during larger eruptions where widespread hot ‘ash hurricane’ may blanket much larger areas, as on 21 January 1951. It also has numerous old lava flows that are more clearly recognisable on aerial photographs than at Lamington (Figure 9.5). Their language is the one most commonly used by people of the Binandere language group and is spoken widely in the more densely populated parts of … Numbers have been added to this adapted figure for only three of the 11 units as follows: 1) a ‘recent tholoid’ shown in red and referring to a) the central lava dome created within the summit crater in 1951–52 and including talus on its north-eastern side (the stippled area represents cloud and vapour from the still-hot tholoid seen on aerial photographs) and b) a ‘recent tholoid’ in the bottom left-hand corner that must be presumed to be older than the central 1951 lava dome; 2) coulées or thick, bulbous lava flows; 3) old lava domes and satellite/adventive pyroclastic cones. The Anglican mission itself put forward that scientific view after the 1951 eruption, which seems a rational and sensible step to take. Second, as many as 11 different land systems are numbered for a smaller area encompassing Mount Lamington and within the box shown in Figure 9.1. The numbers given for each sector are the maximum wind velocities given in knots (about 2 kilometres per hour) and the average wind velocity is given inside brackets. Mount Lamington is an andesitic stratovolcano in the Oro Province of Papua New Guinea.… Water vapour is seen rising from the summit of Mount Sumbiripa, previously known as Mount Lamington. The Papuan people who speak the Orokaiva language live mainly in the northern foothills of Mount Lamington and on the adjoining plains. Ruxton, despite these limitations, cautiously concluded the following: Determining the ‘periodicity’ of catastrophic eruptions that produce deadly pyroclastic flows at Mount Lamington continues to be a major challenge for volcanologists today, and Ruxton’s work still represents the only published attempt to find a practical answer that might be useful for disaster management purposes. Victory is much further from the Owen Stanley Range. Independence Day was celebrated on 16 September 1975. Conversely, at least some Orokaiva have said that senior staff of both the administration at Higaturu and the local Anglican mission had recommended an evacuation (Didymus 1974; Cowley and Virtue 2015). 4 is shown here). The survey teams used new, cloud-free aerial photography as a basis for the mapping, and they defined and mapped so-called ‘land systems’—that is, areas or an area where there is a recurring pattern of ‘land units’, each with its own distinctive combination of topography, soil and vegetation. CSIRO on Mount Lamington. CSIRO plant ecologist B.W. 2). All of the ashes were of the air-fall type and none were recognised as having been deposited by pyroclastic flows. Europeans were certainly aware that the Orokaiva treated the mountain with considerable respect and apprehension as the home of powerful spirits, as noted by Wilfred Beaver as early as 1913–14. Further, earthquakes may be felt, or heard, as roars in the vicinity of Mount Lamington that are of plate-tectonic rather than volcanic origin. Mount Lamington was not known to be a volcano, and there were no traditional stories or legends about previous eruptions. The other three are Hydrographers Range, Mount Trafalgar, and Mount Victory. The overall impression from the map is one of authorities and communities having learnt the lessons of the volcanic disaster of 1951. They had built a recovery village at Irihambo, but were ordered to leave it some years later because it was found to be situated on Crown land intended for the settlement of Australian ex-servicemen. Many pits and auger holes had to be dug and sections along footpaths scraped away to reveal the ash layers, and only the upper sixth of the ash mantle was studied in detail anyway. A fourth aspect of the CSIRO study of Mount Lamington is the determination of the times and rates at which different plant species recovered in the disaster area. This conclusion, however, presupposes that ash falls from the distal parts of early pyroclastic flows are not represented in the sections studied by Ruxton. ABN : 52 234 063 906. Orokaiva historian Maclaren Hiari also recorded that ‘Sumbiri’—without the suffix ‘pa’—is the name of a tribal warrior from the Angereufu clan of the Songe tribe (Hiari 2013). This survey work was part of a regional geological program aimed at covering the whole of the Territory at 1:250,000-scale as a basis for mineral and petroleum exploration and resource assessment (e.g. Plant ecologist B.W. Nothing further was concluded on the subject of eruption periodicity, but the work demonstrated the potential for integrated field studies of Lamington ash deposits in other parts of the area around the volcano. Crocombe 1964; Howlett 1965; Rimoldi 1966; New Guinea Research Bulletin 1966; Waddell and Krinks 1968; see also Newton 1985) as well as in university theses and published in peer-reviewed journals. The instrumented, yet now-quiet Mount Lamington resides on the SE peninsula of the main island of Papua New Guinea. Two other minor volcanic centres on the plateau were together near Kururi, close to Afore, where a small pyroclastic cone and nearby explosion crater were reported by Ruxton as having been ‘active in village memory’ (Ruxton 1966b, 351; Figure 9.4). Further, the burials there had been of bones disinterred by Sub-Inspector George Allen and then reburied at Popondetta in 1952, after a period in police storage. These facts appear clearly from the cycle of myths, centred on the Mountain, collected by me in the vernacular in 1966–1967. RVO staff could use this exceptionally well-positioned and clear photograph for comparative purposes during their inspections (Figure 9.6; McKee 1976). The mountain, in three of the versions, begins to rise because Sumbiri, ignoring a taboo, had sex with his wife. Before 1951, the latest major explosive eruption at Lamington may have been so long ago as to be ‘lost’ in cultural memory, but the same cannot be said necessarily about the smaller eruptions that are presumed to have created the geologically very youthful minor cones on the western flank of the mountain. A third notable point is the mapping of numerous ‘satellite’, ‘adventive’ or ‘parasitic’ volcanic features on the western side of the mountain, as shown on a separate and more detailed map (Figure 9.2). This was on the basis of only thin ash layers being preserved on nearby Trafalgar volcano (after Haantjens et al. Taylor’s unexpected death in 1972 represented the end of a pioneering, postwar period for volcanologists working in the Territory of Papua and New Guinea. Note how many of these features are sited within a broad band running east-north-eastwards up the western flank of the volcano and encompassing the summit area, as shown by the two red dashed lines. The departed spirits of the Orokaiva have their home there, headed by the first man to have suffered death, Sumbiripa, to whom all the activity of the Mountain is ascribed. G.A.M. What are the factors that control the frequency, size and timing of major eruptions? Consequently the Lamington PDC ingested more air and was more dilute than those at St. Helens and Bezymianny. The ashes of Mount Lamington were just one of the subjects of volcanological interest to Bryan Ruxton during the mapping of the Safia–Pongani area. The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Where, how and when does the magma form deep in the earth beneath the volcano? A seismograph and two tiltmeters for earthquake and ground-tilt recording, respectively, were installed 14 kilometres from the summit of Mount Lamington by the RVO in December 1960 at the Martyrs’ Memorial School, now rebuilt at Agenahambo on the main Popondetta road (McKee 1976). The Baigona or Snake cargo cult of 1912 began at the summit of Victory volcano and news of the cult was known to have spread throughout much of Orokaiva country. The aim was to explore potential areas of research that might be of interest to RSPAS. In the late 1960s, its summit area was dominated by a small crater complex and three lava domes, together with some thermal activity. Denham 1969). Other important developments in Port Moresby included the start, also in 1964, of an Administration College and, in 1965, the creation of the University of Papua New Guinea (UPNG) (Meek 1982). Does installing volcano-monitoring equipment at Martyrs’ School help answer the question of how the volcano operates as an integrated geophysical system? We present the results of a detailed reinvestigation of deposits of the famous 1951 eruption of Mount Lamington which was originally studied by T. Taylor (1958). Tectonic microplates of the Melanesian region. Access was difficult and helicopter support was not used until later years. Deeper structures, such as any seismically inactive subducted slabs, could not be determined by the survey. Many of these minor features can be seen also on the oblique aerial photograph taken in 1947 (Figure 3.9). Mt Wilhelm is the highest but what is the second highest mountain in PNG? CSIRO on Mount Lamington. Permanent instrumental monitoring of Lamington volcano was enhanced in June 1970 when a seismograph and telemetry station were installed on the north-western flank of the volcano about 2 kilometres from the summit dome, thus permitting seismic signals to be transmitted by radio to a recorder in Popondetta (Figure 9.10). The Administration College seeded the political influence of a progressive ‘Committee of Thirteen’—Papua New Guineans who publicly proposed early self-government. 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